A Case Study of Stratospheric Ozone Transport to the Northern San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento Valley during CABOTS 2016
Authors: Jodie Clark and Sen Chiao
The California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) was a major air quality study that collected ozone measurements aloft between mid-May and mid-August of 2016. Aircraft measurements, ground-based lidar measurements, and balloon-borne ozonesondes collected precise upper-air ozone measurements across the central and Southern California valley. Utilizing daily ozonesonde data from Bodega Bay, California, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), reanalysis data for 25 July to 14 August 2016, three stratospheric intrusion events are identified over Northern California influencing air masses above Bodega Bay and Sacramento simultaneously. Calculated percent daily changes in afternoon ozonesonde observations indicate increasing ozone concentrations from the point of likely stratospheric air injection with the arrival of higher potential vorticity, confirmed by ensemble back trajectories. An analysis of the onsite surface monitoring ozone data indicates ozone increases in the observations for dates of plausible low-level stratospheric air influence. Further, a comparison of Bodega Bay surface ozone observations and 14 Sacramento Valley nonattainment zone surface sites show that the surface ozone observed at the higher-elevation surface sites in the lower Sierra Nevada foothills were positively correlated with elevated ozone captured by the ozonesondes within the lowest 0.5–1 km. The strongest correlations observed (~0.61) were between elevated Bodega Bay ozonesonde data and the Placerville (~612 m) afternoon surface ozone data, an indication that these regions separated by 200 km would be influence by the same ozone source. A comparison of daily changes in afternoon ozone show that the two locales often experience similar daily ozone increases or decreases. While this study leads to a basic quantification of stratospheric influence on surface ozone in the Sacramento nonattainment zone, a future campaign that examines ozone and winds aloft at both locales is suggested to improve the quantification of stratospheric ozone.